roughly Android Constructing net functions in WebView

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If you wish to serve an online software (or only a net web page) as a part of a shopper software, you are able to do so utilizing WebView. He WebView class is an android extension View class that permits you to show net pages as a part of your exercise format. it does No embody any function of a totally fledged net browser, equivalent to navigation controls or an handle bar. All the things that WebView
what it does, by default, is show an online web page.

A standard state of affairs wherein to make use of WebView It’s helpful if you wish to present info in your software that you just may have to replace, equivalent to an finish person settlement or person information. Inside your Android app, you possibly can create a Exercise
containing a WebViewthen use it to show your doc that’s hosted on-line.

One other state of affairs the place WebView may help is that if your app gives knowledge to the person that all the time requires an web connection to retrieve knowledge, equivalent to e mail. On this case, you might discover it simpler to construct a WebView in your android app that renders an online web page with all of the person knowledge, as a substitute of constructing a community request, then parsing the info and rendering it in an android format. As a substitute, you possibly can design an online web page tailor-made to Android units after which implement a WebView in your android app that hundreds the net web page.

This doc exhibits you how you can get began with WebView and how you can do a number of further issues, like deal with web page navigation and hyperlink JavaScript out of your net web page to client-side code in your Android app.

Add a WebView to your software

So as to add a WebView to your software, you possibly can embody the
<WebView> ingredient in your exercise format, or set your entire Exercise window as a WebView in onCreate().

Add a WebView within the exercise format

So as to add a WebViewto your app within the format, add the next code to your exercise’s format XML file:


To load an online web page on the WebViewput on loadUrl(). For instance:


WebView myWebView = (WebView) findViewById(;

Add a WebView in onCreate()

So as to add a WebView to your software in an exercise onCreate() as a substitute, use logic just like the next:


WebView myWebView = new WebView(activityContext);

Then load the web page with:



Or load the URL from an HTML string:


// Create an unencoded HTML string
// then convert the unencoded HTML string into bytes, encode
// it with Base64, and cargo the info.
String unencodedHtml =
     "&lt;html&gt;&lt;physique&gt;'%23' is the p.c code for ‘#‘ &lt;/physique&gt;&lt;/html&gt;";
String encodedHtml = Base64.encodeToString(unencodedHtml.getBytes(),
myWebView.loadData(encodedHtml, "textual content/html", "base64");

Notice: There are restrictions on what this HTML can do. See loadData() and
for extra info on encoding choices.

Nonetheless, earlier than it will work, your software should have entry to the Web. To acquire Web entry, request the INTERNET permission in your manifest file. For instance:

<manifest ... >
    <uses-permission android:identify="android.permission.INTERNET" />

That is all you want for a fundamental. WebView which shows an online web page. Additionally, you possibly can customise your WebViewmodifying the next:

  • Enabling full display screen assist with
    WebChromeClient. This class can also be referred to as when a WebView wants permission to change the person interface of the host software, equivalent to creating or closing home windows and sending JavaScript dialogs to the person. For extra details about debugging on this context, learn Debugging net functions.
  • Dealing with occasions that have an effect on content material rendering, equivalent to errors in type submission or navigation with WebViewClient. You may also use this subclass to intercept the URL payload.
  • Allow JavaScript by modifying
  • Use JavaScript to entry Android framework objects that you’ve injected right into a

Utilizing JavaScript in WebView

If the net web page you intend to load in your WebView makes use of JavaScript, you should allow JavaScript to your WebView. As soon as JavaScript is enabled, you can even create interfaces between your software code and your JavaScript code.

JavaScript enablement

JavaScript is disabled on a WebView default. You possibly can allow it by means of the WebSettings hooked up to your WebView.You possibly can get better WebSettings with getSettings()then allow JavaScript with setJavaScriptEnabled().

For instance:


WebView myWebView = (WebView) findViewById(;
WebSettings webSettings = myWebView.getSettings();

WebSettings gives entry to quite a lot of different settings that you could be discover helpful. For instance, in case you are creating an online software designed particularly for the WebView in your android app you possibly can outline a customized person agent string with setUserAgentString()then question the customized person agent in your net web page to confirm that the shopper requesting your net web page is definitely your Android app.

Hyperlink JavaScript code to Android code

When creating an online software designed particularly for the WebView In your Android software, you possibly can create interfaces between your JavaScript code and client-side Android code. For instance, your JavaScript code can name a way in your Android code to show a Dialogas a substitute of utilizing javascript alert() operate.

To bind a brand new interface between your JavaScript and Android code, name addJavascriptInterface()passing it a category occasion to bind to your JavaScript and an interface identify that your JavaScript can name to entry the category.

For instance, you possibly can embody the next class in your Android software:


public class WebAppInterface 
    Context mContext;

    /** Instantiate the interface and set the context */
    WebAppInterface(Context c) 
        mContext = c;

    /** Present a toast from the net web page */
    public void showToast(String toast) 
        Toast.makeText(mContext, toast, Toast.LENGTH_SHORT).present();

Warning: You probably have arrange your targetSdkVersion
to 17 or extra, you should add the @JavascriptInterface annotation to any technique you wish to be out there to your JavaScript (the strategy should even be public). If you don’t present the annotation, your net web page will be unable to entry the strategy when working on Android 4.2 or increased.

On this instance, the WebAppInterface class permits the net web page to create a Toast message, utilizing the showToast() technique.

You possibly can bind this class to the JavaScript working in your WebView with
addJavascriptInterface() and identify the interface Android. For instance:


WebView webView = (WebView) findViewById(;
webView.addJavascriptInterface(new WebAppInterface(this), "Android");

This creates an interface referred to as Android for JavaScript working on the WebView. At this level, your net software has entry to the WebAppInterface class. For instance, this is some HTML and JavaScript that creates a toast message utilizing the brand new interface when the person clicks a button:

<enter sort="button" worth="Say hiya" onClick="showAndroidToast('Whats up Android!')" />
<script sort="textual content/javascript">
    operate showAndroidToast(toast) 

There isn’t a have to initialize the Android javascript interface. He WebView routinely makes it out there to your web site. So if you click on the button, the showAndroidToast()
operate makes use of the Android interface to name WebAppInterface.showToast()

Notice: The article that’s sure to your JavaScript runs on one other thread and never the thread it was constructed on.

Warning: Sporting addJavascriptInterface() permits JavaScript to regulate your Android software. This generally is a very helpful function or a harmful safety downside. When the HTML within the WebView is unreliable (for instance, some or the entire HTML is offered by an unknown particular person or course of), then an attacker can embody HTML that executes his client-side code, and probably any code the attacker chooses. As such, you shouldn’t use
addJavascriptInterface() except you’ve got written all of the HTML and JavaScript code that seems in your WebView. Nor ought to it enable the person to navigate to different net pages that aren’t theirs, inside their WebView
(as a substitute, enable the person’s default browser app to open exterior hyperlinks; by default, the person’s net browser opens all URL hyperlinks, so watch out provided that you deal with web page navigation as described within the subsequent part).

Dealing with web page navigation

When the person clicks on a hyperlink on an online web page on his WebView, the default habits is for Android to launch an software that handles URLs. Often the default net browser opens and hundreds the vacation spot URL. Nonetheless, you possibly can override this habits to your WebViewso the hyperlinks open inside your WebView. You possibly can then enable the person to navigate forwards and backwards by means of your net web page historical past that maintains their WebView.

Notice: For safety causes, the system browser app doesn’t share your app knowledge together with your app.

To open hyperlinks that the person clicked on, present a WebViewClient for you WebViewsporting setWebViewClient(). For instance:


WebView myWebView = (WebView) findViewById(;

That is all. Now all of the hyperlinks that the person clicks are loaded of their WebView.

In order for you extra management over the place a clicked hyperlink hundreds, create your personal WebViewClient which cancels the
shouldOverrideUrlLoading() technique. For instance:


non-public class MyWebViewClient extends WebViewClient 
    public boolean shouldOverrideUrlLoading(WebView view, String url) 
        if (Uri.parse(url).getHost().equals("")) 
            // That is my web site, so don't override; let my WebView load the web page
            return false;
        // In any other case, the hyperlink just isn't for a web page on my web site, so launch one other Exercise that handles URLs
        Intent intent = new Intent(Intent.ACTION_VIEW, Uri.parse(url));
        return true;

Then create an occasion of this new WebViewClient For him WebView:


WebView myWebView = (WebView) findViewById(;
myWebView.setWebViewClient(new MyWebViewClient());

Now, when the person clicks on a hyperlink, the system calls
shouldOverrideUrlLoading(), which checks if the URL host matches a selected area (as outlined above). If it matches, then the strategy returns false for No aborts the loading of the url (permits the WebView to load the URL as regular). If the URL host doesn’t match, then a Intent is created to launch the default Exercise to deal with URLs (resolving to the person’s default net browser).

Whenever you WebView cancels the loading of URLs, routinely accumulates a historical past of net pages visited. You possibly can navigate again and ahead by means of historical past with goBack() and goForward().

For instance, that is how your Exercise can use the gadget Again button to navigate again:


public boolean onKeyDown(int keyCode, KeyEvent occasion) 
    // Verify if the important thing occasion was the Again button and if there's historical past
    if ((keyCode == KeyEvent.KEYCODE_BACK) && myWebView.canGoBack()) 
        return true;
    // If it wasn't the Again key or there isn't any net web page historical past, bubble as much as the default
    // system habits (in all probability exit the exercise)
    return tremendous.onKeyDown(keyCode, occasion);


He canGoBack() The tactic returns true if there actually is a historical past of net pages for the person to go to. In the identical method, you should use canGoForward() to examine if there’s a forwarding historical past. If you don’t carry out this examine, as soon as the person reaches the top of the historical past, goBack() both goForward() does nothing.

Dealing with gadget configuration adjustments

Throughout runtime, exercise state adjustments happen when a tool’s configuration adjustments, equivalent to when customers rotate the gadget or dismiss an enter technique editor (IME). These adjustments will trigger a WebView the thing exercise to be destroyed and a brand new exercise to be created, which additionally creates a brand new exercise WebView
object that may load the URL of the destroyed object. To switch the default habits of your exercise, you possibly can change the best way it handles orientation
adjustments to your manifest. For extra info on dealing with configuration adjustments at runtime, learn Dealing with Configuration Modifications.

Handle home windows

By default, requests to open new home windows are ignored. That is true whether or not they’re opened through JavaScript or through the goal attribute on a hyperlink. you possibly can customise your WebChromeClient to supply your personal habits for opening a number of home windows.

Warning: To maintain your app safer, it is best to stop pop-ups and new home windows from opening. The most secure solution to implement this habits is to go
"true" in

setSupportMultipleWindows() however not cancel the
onCreateWindow() technique, which setSupportMultipleWindows() depends upon. Notice, nonetheless, that this logic additionally prevents any web page that makes use of goal="_blank"
in your hyperlinks from the load.

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Android Building web applications in WebView

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